Khvylovy, who opposed peasantry and “massism” in literature.
Thus, Marxist writers propagated the idea that in order to carry out their tasks, the revolution, in addition to the socio-political sphere, must reach into the field of culture.
That is, bourgeois art and the thinking of the past must be replaced by new, proletarian, art. In Russia at this time are gaining popularity works of Vladimir Mayakovsky, Maxim Gorky. The direction of literary realism displaces all other literary directions. In 1922, the first of the mass literary organizations, the Plow, appeared in Kharkiv under the leadership of Serhiy Pylypenko. Stating that the masses needed to create the literature they wanted, the organization set up a network of writers’ circles, which soon reached 200 writers and thousands of beginners. One of the figures of the organization expressed his attitude to art: “The task of our time in the field of art is to land art, remove it from the pedestal to the ground, make it necessary and understandable to all.” A year later, Vasyl Ellan-Blakytny organized the literary group Hart, which also sought to work to create a proletarian culture in Ukraine. The group included Konstantin Gordienko, Oleksandr Dovzhenko, Oles Dosvitniy, Mykhailo Johansen, Oleksandr Kopylenko, Ivan Mykytenko, Valerian Polishchuk, Volodymyr Sosyura, Ivan Senchenko, Pavlo Tychyna, Mykola Khvylovy, and others. Along with these Marxist organizations, small groups of ideologically neutral or “non-proletarian” writers and artists also emerged. During the period of Ukrainization, the Kyiv literary group of “neoclassics” headed by Mykola Zerov stood out. It consisted of Mykhailo Dry-Khmara, Pavlo Filipovych, O. Burghardt (Yuriy Klen), and Maksym Rylsky. Brilliantly educated people, they spoke many foreign languages, created numerous translations of world classics, actively opposed the “Proletcult”. “Neoclassics” focused on a combination of national traditions and experience of world and European literature. The aesthetic views of the “neoclassics” were shared by M. Khvylovy, who opposed peasantry and “massism” in literature. His journalism (“Where are you coming from?” “Thoughts against the flow”) played a significant role in the development of the Ukrainian literary process. Article “Ukraine or Little Russia?” In 1926 it was withdrawn from literary circulation, it was published only in 1990. In 1925, after the collapse of “Gart”, some of its members (among them Mykola Kulish, Pavlo Tychyna, Mykola Bazhan, Petro Panch, Yuriy Yanovsky and Ivan Senchenko) formed an elite literary organization “Vaplite” (“Free Academy of Proletarian Literature”) headed by Nikolai Khvylov. Opponents of “Vaplite” were not only Pilipenko and other supporters of “Plow”. The then communist leadership of Ukraine criticized the “bourgeois-nationalist ideology.” Even Stalin pointed to the danger of M. Khvylovy’s views. To combat the spread of nationalist ideas in literature, the pro-Soviet organization VUSPP (All-Ukrainian Union of Proletarian Writers) was established in 1927 and the Communist Party’s control over literary activity was strengthened. In the midst of these events, high-quality literary works appeared – P. Tychyna and M. Rylsky. Immediately after the publication in 1918 of the collection “Solar Clarinets” P. Tychyna gained wide recognition. The artistic mastery of the word demonstrated by him in such subsequent collections as “Instead of Sonnets and Octaves” “Wind from Ukraine” left no doubt that Tychyna’s works are a real milestone in the development of Ukrainian poetry. The poems of Maksym Rylsky, published in the collections “Under the Autumn Stars”, “Blue Distance” and “Thirteenth Spring”, were restrained, philosophical and deeply rooted in the classical traditions of the West. Among many other poets of that time, Mykola Zerov, Pavlo Filipovych, Mykhailo Dry-Khmara, Yevhen Pluzhnyk, Volodymyr Sosyura, Mykola Bazhan and Todos Osmachka deserve special attention. The main themes of prose works were the consequences of the revolution and the civil war in human life and society. In “Blue Etudes” imbued with a subtle sense of the word, a symbiosis of romance and crude realism, Nikolai Khvylovy praises the revolution, while in “Autumn” and “I” he reflects its contradictions and his growing sense of frustration with it. In such works as “In the Rye” Hryhoriy Kosynka skillfully depicts the determination of the peasants in the struggle against foreigners. In the novel The City, the skeptical and mystical Valerian Pidmohylny describes how it is safe for a Ukrainian peasant to live in a city that is foreign to him because he renounces the best peasant values. In his work “From the Notes of a Hooligan”, the master of satire Ivan Senchenko ridicules the invertebrates that were created by the Soviet system. The spirit of the Zaporozhian Cossacks appears in Yuri Yanovsky’s novel “Four Swords” with his vivid descriptions of partisan peasants. But unsurpassed in popularity was Ostap Vyshnya, whose witty humoresques were read by millions of people. Mykola Kulish was the most prominent figure among playwrights. His three plays – “People’s Malachi” “Mina Mazailo” and “Pathetic Sonata” – caused a sensation with their modernist form and tragicomic interpretation of the new Soviet reality, Russian chauvinism, “Little Russian” mentality, anachronistic Ukrainian nationalism, spiritual immaturity. During this period there were significant changes in relations between the Ukrainian West and East. If at the turn of the century Galician publications opened their columns for writers from the Dnieper region, in the 1920s and 1930s the Eastern Ukrainian press widely published Galician and Bukovinian authors. And in Kharkiv a writers’ union “Western Ukraine” is being created with a magazine of the same name, which is headed by Myroslav Irchan after returning from America. The names of Yaroslav Galan, Stepan Tudor, Petro Kozlankzh, Yaroslav Kondra, Oleksandr Havrylkzha, Vasyl Bobynsky, Kateryna Hrynevycheva, and Myroslava Sopilka variously represent the literary and artistic searches of Western Ukrainian authors. The imaginative poet Bohdan-Ihor Antonych was distinguished by his innovative talent in Western Ukraine. Attention is drawn to the philosophical understanding of the existence of the collection “Three Rings” “Book of the Lion” “Green Gospel” “Rotations”. Creativity B.-I. Antonych is in tune with the poetry of P. Tychyna. Used literature:
World History. 1914-1939. Tutorial. – K., 1999; Literary encyclopedia. – K., 1999; Ukrainian and foreign culture / Ed. Trump. – K., 2001.
Hard years of the Holodomor based on Vasily Barka’s novel “Yellow Prince”
Vasyl Barka (Vasyl Kostianty Novych Ocheret) was almost the only one of the entire Ukrainian population who managed to recreate impressively, not seen anywhere else in the world, but experienced, terrible picture of the famine years. The works of Ukrainian writers from the diaspora are slowly returning to us, as well as, of course, V. Barka, who was not read or even mentioned in Ukraine, because it so happened that his name was banned for many years.
The Holodomor gave us back the forgotten name. It was his novel The Yellow Prince that disturbed our historical memory of the famine of 1932-1933. The writer reveals to us two spiritual worlds: the devilish world of the yellow prince and the Christian world – the family of a peasant-farmer Myron Danilovich Katrannik and his wife Daria Alexandrovna. Day after day, the author tells about the life of the owner and his family. What was this family like? What life principles did she profess? What did she live for? What did you think and dream about? How did you perceive the political events of the era of violent collectivization and artificial terror-famine in Ukraine? What were the consequences of these events? How does the author treat his characters? All this is a panorama of the life of the Katrannikov family, which, like others, fell under the merciless wheel of hunger. Like all the hungry, the family ate porridge from the still hidden millet at night, and the hunger became even stronger; then they ate everything that was left in the field – beets, sunflowers, frozen horse, grain, ground squirrels, sparrows, starlings caught by Myron and Andriy. But there is no salvation. Death by starvation takes the family in its arms. The first to die is the guardian of the family, family comfort, grandmother Khrystyna Hryhorivna. She generously endowed everyone with love, warmth, wise advice – adults, fairy tales – children. She taught kindness, humanity to her children and grandchildren, and to others. The death of the eldest son Mykola, intelligent, kind, and fair, takes away the second. It gives apt names to people and non-humans, depending on how they earn their living: bread-labor, bread-bites, bread-millet, bread-carts, bread-gifts … A sharp conflict arises between the owner of the family Myron Katrannyk and a representative of the Bolshevik government Grigory Otrokhodin. Although they are people of one epoch, one time, but each has his own purpose in life. Myron has a Christian faith in God and he seeks to save the life of his family with all his might, but not at the expense of anyone, and Otrokhodin has a party-Bolshevik faith in Stalin, who is ready to exterminate the whole nation for the sake of the so-called “bright future”. That is why Myron’s and Otrokhodin’s interests were sharply at stake. Why was Myron silent? After all, his silence is the death of his family. I could confess for the sake of my children. Nobody would know. All the same, after a while the village would die out, and the Katranniks would remain alive. help me write my lab report for free Why didn’t he do that? Because human ethics, the morals of the village do not give the right to choose. The villagers will curse him and his whole family. Nothing can force Myron to go beyond national morality. He inherited the most important thing from his nation – faith in God, which gives strong spiritual strength. He suffers himself, and defends others, never stands aside from someone else’s misfortune. Let’s remember how Myron finds bread from the dead. He hides the dead. Although shameful, you can take bread from the dead, as Myron did, you can kill a gopher, a dog, eat them. However, there are things that cannot be transgressed. When you step over, you are no longer human. That is why Myron divides the horse, does not drive away the weak, weak, old. Have we ever wondered why Andriy does the same? Where does such behavior come from in both? Its roots are in the eternal family pedagogy, which is based on deep respect for man, observance of the laws of Christian morality. In the Katrannikov family, everyone lived for each other. The high ethics of family relations was passed on to children and then to grandchildren. And they came from Khrystyna Hryhorivna’s grandmother.